Bibliographies

Background

  • A bibliography is a list of resources used in preparing a piece of work.
  • When writing up a piece of work you will need to cite (quote) the bibliographical references for all resources you have used.
  • Bibliographical references need to be cited in two different places:
  1. Where a document is referred to in the text
  2. In an alphabetical list at the end of the work.

Citing in the text

Citing in the text (without direct quote)

At each point in the text which refers to a particular resource, insert the author's surname and publication year. (Initials not necessary unless two authors have same name)
e.g. The work of Baxter (1992), Stevens (1995) and Torney (1989) were all concerned with the importance of consistency in bibliographies and citations.

Citing direct quotations

After the quote include author's surname, publication year followed by page number. [one page (p) pages (pp) (full stop)]
e.g. "We met resistance at both objectives" (Meyers, 2001, p.5)

 

Books

Include the following information in this order:

  1. Author's surname, initials (full stop)
  2. Title of book [underlined when handwritten; italics when typed] (full stop)
  3. Year [in brackets] (full stop)
  4. Place of publication (colon)
  5. Publisher (full stop)

Example: 
Paul,A. Girlosophy. (2002). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen and Unwin.

For a reference book

Title of Book. [underlined when handwritten; italics when typed] (full stop) 
Year 
(in brackets) 
Place of publication
(colon) 
Publisher
 (full stop) 

Books (edited)

Include the following information in this order

  1. Author's surname, initials (full stop)
  2. ed. (brackets)
  3. Title of book [underlined when handwritten; italics when typed] (full stop)
  4. Year. (brackets) (full stop)
  5. Place of publication (colon)
  6. Publisher (full stop)

Example:
Kovtan, D. (ed.) Introduction to astrology. (1999) New York: Todrti.

For an Article in an edited book:

Before 1 to 5 add:

  1. Article's author's surname, initials. (full stop)
  2. Title of article. (full stop)
  3. Year. (brackets) (full stop)
  4. Followed by In: (underlined) (colon)
  5. Back to number 1 and omit number 3

CD Roms

Include the following information in this order: 

  • Author's surname, initials (full stop)
  • Year (in brackets) (full stop)
  • Title (underlined OR italics) (full stop)
  • CD ROM [in square brackets] (full stop)
  • Place of publication (colon)
  • Publisher (full stop)

 

Example:

Hawker, M. (1999). Australian Prime Ministers [CD ROM]. Melbourne: CD Software.

 

E-mail

Include the following information in this order:

  • Sender's surname, initials (full stop)
  • sender's e-mail address (in brackets) (comma)
  • Day (comma) month (comma) year. (full stop)
  • Subject of message (underlined OR italics) (full stop)
  • recipient's E-mail address. (in brackets) (full stop)

Example:

Francis, S. (sfrancis@boxhillhs.vic.edu.au), 10th October, 1999. Internet Sites. (boxhillhs@vic.edu.au).


Interviews

Include the following information in this order:

  • Name of interviewee. First initial (full stop) Surname (full stop)
  • Kind of interview (Personal or Telephone) (full stop)
  • Date of interview (full stop)

Example:

B. Owens. Personal interview. 25th July 2000

 

Journal articles

Include the following information in this order:

  • Author's surname, initials (full stop)
  • Year (in brackets) (full stop)
  • Title of the article (full stop)
  • Title of the journal (underlined OR italics) (full stop)
  • Volume, number, month/season (comma)
  • Page numbers of article (full stop)

 

Example:

Davey, J. (1991). Is memory getting harder to retain? Psychology. No. 12, March, pp. 35-38.

 

Newspaper articles

Include the following information in this order:

  • Author's surname, initials (full stop)
  • Year (in brackets) (full stop)
  • Title of the article (full stop)
  • Title of the newspaper (underlined OR italics) (full stop)
  • Date of publication (comma)
  • Page numbers of article (full stop)

Example:  

Reimer, P. (1998). Black dingoes search. Sunday Herald-Sun. 18th September, p 4.

 

Videos

Include the following information in this order:

  • Series Title (full stop)
  • Series number (full stop)
  • Title (underlined OR italics) (full stop)
  • Year (in brackets) (full stop)
  • Place of publication (colon)
  • Publisher (full stop)
  • Date of transmission (comma)
  • Medium: Format [in square brackets] (full stop)

 

Example:

Scientific Eye. 6. Brain Power. (1994). Sydney: ABC. 21st May, [video:VHS]


Websites

Include the following information in this order:

  • Author's surname, initials. (full stop)
  • Year. (in brackets) (full stop)
  • Title (underlined OR italics)
  • [Internet]. (in square brackets) (full stop)
  • Place of publication: (colon)
  • Publisher (if ascertainable). (full stop)
  • Available from: [Accessed date].

Example:
Davis, L. (1997). DNA: The real story [Internet]. Canberra: CSIRO. Available from: http://www.csiro.gov.au [Accessed 17th June, 1998].


If there is no author start at step 3.

If there is no date write n.d. (no date) after the author's name

e.g. Hanson, B. n.d. Central Nepal. (cont. on from step 3

If there is no publisher or place of publication skip 5 and 6 and conclude with 7

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